Fuel injectors: design and principle of operation

The fuel injector or injector is an important component of the engine's injection system. It delivers fuel and atomizes it, creates a fuel-air mixture. The spraying process takes place in the intake manifold through nozzles. They, in turn, form a fuel torch, mix air with fuel, and this mixture is burned. It is on the quality of this fuel-air mixture that fuel consumption, engine start, and its power depend. For further info, click here: how to use fuel injector

A fuel injector (injector) is used in all engine injection systems. The key difference is the operating pressure. For example, a high-pressure fuel pump pumps diesel fuel up to hundreds of atmospheres, and a gasoline pump creates it in 2 atmospheres.

Features of the nozzle device

It consists of the following elements: an electromagnet, a shut-off needle, an anchor, a spray, a control valve piston, a spring-loaded stem. Depending on the purpose, the injector may have a slightly different design. Moreover, everything is improving, changing. This also applies to fuel injectors.

Today manufacturers offer products with different device sand operating principles. This is due to the requirements of the modern car industry.

Types of fuel injectors and their features

· Mechanical. They are intended for the simplest ICE models. Their work is based on opening the valve when a certain pressure indicator is reached. When it rises, the spring-loaded needle rises and fuel enters the distributor, when it decreases, the needle drops.

· Electromagnetic. Their work is based on supplying fuel to the cylinders due to the movement of the needle by an electromagnetic valve. The operation of the valve is regulated by an electric control unit. This means that the fuel does not enter the atomizer without a specific signal.

· Piezoelectric. They are similar in principle to electromagnetic elements. Only their action is based on the piezoelectric effect (by analogy with an electric lighter). Their main advantage is quick valve response. In one cycle of fuel supply, injection is performed up to 9times, which significantly improves efficiency and increases the power of the internal combustion engine. In addition, the advantages of this element include low noise level, economical fuel consumption and improved smoothness of the vehicle.

· Pump - nozzles. This is an integrated system without a high-pressure pump. It is a pump combined with a nozzle. This system works as follows: the low-pressure pump supplies fuel, and the injection pressure is generated by the camshaft cams. The result is high-quality fuel customization.

Injector maintenance

The ingress of dirt into the injection pump disables the entire system, and this is an expensive operation. This can be avoided if quality fuel is used.

Also, to extend the life of the injector, it is necessary to flush it. Flushing the injector is a necessary vehicle maintenance procedure.It is recommended to run it at intervals of 25,000 km.

Often the owner of the technician ignores this procedure,saving time and money. But at one moment the unexpected may happen - the engine will stop starting on the first try. If you turn a blind eye to this, then very soon you will have to spend a lot on repairing the fuel system . To prevent this from happening, it is worth replacing the nozzles or rinsing them.

The chemical flushing procedure takes about 2 hours. Many workshops offer ultrasonic cleaning.

These procedures help to increase the life of the element sand the fuel system as a whole, increase engine power, and reduce fuel consumption.